Most notable, however, were the two holdups committed by masked road-agent William Whitney Brazelton.
Brazelton held up two stages in the summer of 1878 near Point of Mountain Station approximately 17 mi (27 km) northwest of Tucson. to send special agent and future Pima County sheriff Bob Paul to investigate.
In 1857, Tucson became a stage station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and in 1858 became 3rd division headquarters of the Butterfield Overland Mail until the line shut down in March 1861.
The Overland Mail Corporation attempted to continue running, however, following the Bascom Affair, devastating Apache attacks on the stations and coaches ended operations in August 1861.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón Tucson was probably first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago.
Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River have located a village site dating from 2100 BC.
Tucson and all of what is now Arizona were part of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when they became part of the new Arizona Territory.
From 1867 to 1877, Tucson was the capital of the Arizona Territory.
Tucson became a part of the United States of America, although the American military did not formally take over control until March 1856.
Eventually the town came to be called "Tucson" and became a part of the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821. George Cooke with the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican–American War in 1846-1848, but soon returned to Mexican control as Cooke continued his mission westward establishing Cooke's Wagon Road to California.
Tucson was not included originally in the Mexican Cession and Cooke's road through Tucson became one of the important routes into California during the California Gold Rush of 1849.
The floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150.
These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn, beans, and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting.
Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775 (near the present downtown Pima County Courthouse).