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Such laws typically address issues such as incapacitation, retribution/punishment, deterrence, and rehabilitation (CSOM, 2008).During the 2007–08 legislative biennium alone, 1,500 bills related to sexual offenders were introduced in 44 states (6 states had no legislative session during this timeframe), with 275 of these bills passing into law (Council of State Governments [CSG], 2010).The concept of sex offender management has been conceptualized under the construct of a Comprehensive Approach to Sex Offender Management (CASOM) by the Center for Sex Offender Management (CSOM).The CASOM model (CSOM, 2007) includes the following— According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, at yearend 2008 more than 165,000 offenders convicted of rape or sexual assault were in state prisons (Guerino, Harrison, & Sabol, 2011).In discussing the study results, the researchers concluded, "Despite the experience of hundreds of intensive supervision programs in this country and many studies, albeit few experimental, we still know very little about the effectiveness of these programs to reduce prison overcrowding, and…, to reduce crime in detectable ways" (Petersilia & Turner, 1993, p. Questions about the effectiveness of intensive supervision in the absence of treatment have led to the development of intensive supervision programs with a treatment orientation.A specific example is the containment approach, which includes collaboration on specialized supervision of sexual offenders provided by trained supervision personnel, sex-offense-specific treatment, and polygraph assessment.

It is not known whether findings from these studies are generalizable to sex offender populations, but the findings provide important insights concerning the effectiveness of intensive supervision overall.While it is difficult to track national trends over time, there is little question that the number of sex offenders under correctional supervision in the community has increased substantially over the past 20 years.In fact, sex offender management laws have become so prominent in the United States that the issue was recently identified as the fifth most important area of concern for state legislators (CSOM, 2008).(For a discussion of adult "Sex Offender Risk Assessment," see chapter 6 in the Adult section.) In terms of strategies used by specialized supervision officers, a survey of probation and parole supervisors (= 732) conducted in 1994 found that 85 percent referred offenders to sex-offender-specific counseling and that 30 percent of probation officers and 32 percent of parole officers had specialized caseloads; however, less than 10 percent required polygraph testing (English, Pullen, & Jones, 1996).The importance of multidisciplinary collaboration with supervision officers was also supported in a survey of treatment providers from 45 states and the District of Columbia (= 190), where 90 percent said their rapport with probation officers was excellent or good, 24.2 percent said probation officers attended weekly group sessions, and 87.4 percent said communication with probation officers was essential (Mc Grath, Cumming, & Holt, 2002).Despite the intuitive value of using science to guide decision-making, laws and policies designed to combat sexual offending are often introduced or enacted in the absence of empirical support.

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