A stranger traversing the parish lengthwise along the road is presented with a great variety of land and sea views, and alternately moves along a delightful bank overlooking the sea and Buteshire, and suddenly descends into pleasant woods and valleys.
Mica slate, intersected with quartzite and basaltic veins, is the predominant rock; and granite occurs in large boulders.
The St Andrews branch of the North British railway system enters the parish at the river Eden at Guard Bridge, and runs east-south-eastward 3^ miles to the W end of the town of St Andrews.
It was opened in 1852, and the Anstruther and St An- drews section of the same system was opened to Boarhills in 1883, and to St Andrews in 1887.
Other antiquities, besides those 91 noticed under Carradale and Skipness, are several cairns, tumuli, and hill-forts. The parish of St Andrews is bounded N by the parish of Leuchars, NE by St Andrews Bay, SE by the parish of Kingsbarns, S by the parishes of Dunino, Cameron, and Ceres, W by the parish of Kem- back, and NW by the parish of Leuchars.Saddell parish church, at Carradale village, was built about 1771, and contains over 300 sittings. The coast, from the Eden to the burgh of St Andrews, is a flat, firm, sandy beach, skirted by the links; and from the burgh to Kenly Burn an expanse of rough shelving rocks skirted by low dill's from 60 to 40 feet in height.There is a Free church of Carradale and Skipness; and four public schools — Carradale, Saddell, Skipness, and Sperasaig — with re- spective accommodation for 158, 54, 54, and 30 children, have an average attendance of about 105, 35, 20, and 25, and annual government grants amounting to nearly £115, £55, £40, and £45. (1801) 1767, (1831) 2152, (1861) 1227, (1871) 1153, (1881) 1163,(1891)1156, of whom 698 were Gaelic-speaking, and 761 were in Saddell ecclesiastical parish. Among these are several caves, but Kinkell Cave, a mile to the E of the burgh, with a length of about 75 feet and a height of from 10 to 25 feet, is the only one of importance.The proposed East Fife Central railway, from Leven to Bonnyton and northward to Dairsie, is to have an eastern branch from Bonnyton to Stravithie on the Anstruther and St An- drews railway.Besides the town of St Andrews the parish contains also the villages of Strathkinness (W) and Boar- hills (E) and the hamlet of Kincaple (N), with part of the hamlet of Denhead (S), the last three of which are separ- ately noticed, as is also the old bridge at Guard Bridge.It gives off the quoad sacra par- ish of Strathkinness, and there is a mission station at Boarhills.