The following First, Second and Third Fitnas and finally the Abbasid Revolution (746–750) also definitively destroyed the political unity of the Muslims, who have been inhabiting multiple states ever since.
The majority of Muslims consider the first four successors to be 'rightly guided' or Rashidun.
The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends.
Muslim history involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution.
The history of Islam began in the Arabian Peninsula when the Islamic prophet Muhammad allegedly received the first revelation of the Quran in the 7th century in the cave of Hira in the month of Ramadan.
According to tradition, he was supposedly commanded by Allah to convey this message to the people, and to be patient with those hostile to it.
Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba.