At first, President marshal Josip Broz Tito tried to break the centuries-long link between Croatia and the Holy See by offering Archbishop Stepinac a Croatian national church but Stepinac refused, which eventually resulted in attacks on the bishops in the summer of 1952.
Pope Pius XII, wishing to pay tribute to archbishop Stepinac for his faithfulness, elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1953 which triggered a reaction from the Government.
During the Croatian–Ottoman Wars that lasted from the 15th to 19th century Croats strongly fought against the Turks which resulted in the fact that the westernmost border of the Ottoman Empire and Europe became entrenched on the soil of the Croatian Kingdom.
In 1519, Croatia was called the Antemurale Christianitatis by Pope Leo X.
Negotiations were eventually terminated due to opposition by the Serbian Orthodox Church which claimed that the Catholic Church would be privileged.
So the Catholic Church remained the only religious community in the Kingdom which did not have regularized relations with the state.
However, Pius did send abbot Giuseppe Ramiro Marcone as his apostolic visitor to NDH.
After the Second World War, Croatia become part of the Communist governed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Pope John VIII replied with a letter on June 7, 879, in which he wrote that he celebrated a Mass at the tomb of St.
The Holy See reacted by excommunicating President Tito and some other officials who participated in the trial.
After 13 years, on June 25, 1966, SFR Yugoslavia and the Holy See signed the Protocol by which the two states established very limited relations on the level of government delegates to the Holy See and an Apostolic delegate with the function of envoy to Yugoslavia.
Pope Alexander visited Palagruža, Vis, Zadar and Rab.
He entered Zadar on a white horse, and was welcomed by a huge crowd that was singing songs in the Croatian language. This was documented on the memorial plaque in the Zadar Cathedral. This visit, during which he stayed in Zadar for three days, occurred because of a storm that occurred while he was on his way to the Republic of Venice where he signed an agreement with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
In 1918 Croatia become part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.