Raphael was initially influenced by Leonardo, and he incorporated the pyramidal composition and beautifully modelled faces of (reigned 1503–13) chose Bramante to be papal architect, and together they devised a plan to replace the 4th-century Old St. The project was not completed, however, until long after Bramante’s death.
The Renaissance as a unified historical period ended with the fall of Rome in 1527.
Although Michelangelo thought of himself first as a sculptor, his best-known work is the giant ceiling fresco of the in the Vatican. To the scholars and thinkers of the day, however, it was primarily a time of the revival of Classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation. Events at the end of the Middle Ages, particularly beginning in the 12th century, set in motion a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations that culminated in the Renaissance.These included the increasing failure of the to provide a stable and unifying framework for the organization of spiritual and material life, the rise in importance of city-states and national monarchies, the development of national languages, and the breakup of the old feudal structures.In the hands of men such as and gone out among the poor praising the beauties and spiritual value of nature.His example inspired Italian artists and poets to take pleasure in the world around them.Finally, humanism looked forward to a rebirth of a lost human spirit and wisdom.