The forestry industry still plays an important role in the local economy.
Atholville's population is mostly Acadian but there is also a substantial anglophone minority.
In 1672 Nicolas Denys was the first to mention the use of the name in connection with the village, in his Geographical and historical description of the coasts of North America, with the natural history of this country.
The Quebec side extends, from west to east, from Restigouche-Partie-Sud-Est to Pointe-à-la-Croix and Listuguj.
Walker Creek rises in the south-east of the territory.
The village itself is crossed from east to west by New Brunswick Route 134 which provides access to Tide Head and Campbellton: this road is called Notre-Dame Street in the village. The New Brunswick East Coast Railway, the former Intercolonial Railway, passes through the village from east to west, north of Notre-Dame Street.
The river is navigable but the nearest port is Dalhousie.
The entrepreneur Robert Ferguson (1768-1851) arrived in the area in 1796 from Logierait near Blair Atholl in Scotland and built a house called Athol House: this was actually one of many Scottish names in the North of the County.