In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain.
Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland.
I extend my sincere thanks to all the people who have sent me corrections.
Revisions and Additions: I have made a number of small changes in the text itself in the years since the book was first published. The Exercises: I have not written up solutions to the exercises.
Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland.
However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain.
A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades, and Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, and Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same.
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For the sovereign state of the same name, see Republic of Ireland.
For the part of the United Kingdom, see Northern Ireland.
Corrections: I am trying to keep an up-to-date list of corrections for all the errors, typographical and otherwise, that I am aware of.