Each lung is composed of smooth, shiny lobes; the right lung has three lobes and the left has two. Fresh oxygen moves into the capillaries, and carbon dioxide passes from the capillaries into the bloodstream, where it is carried out of the body through the lungs.Blood vessels carry the oxygen-rich blood to the heart, where it is pumped throughout the body. However, pneumonia can also be caused by viruses, fungi, and other agents.(3) By the 4th or 5th day, neutrophils predominate in the consolidated alveoli. (bacteremia) via the lymphatic system, or because of damage to lung endothelial cells. Despite the vaccine's shortcomings, levels of protection as high as 60% have been reported for elderly populations, and protection levels in youger adults are higher.Damage to the lung can disrupt gas exchange so severely, that the patient becomes cyanotic and literally suffocates. This occurs in 25% of cases of pneumococcal pneumonia (need for blood cultures) (Secondary sites may be infected heart valves, joints, peritoneal cavity) Importance of the RES system demonstrated by those without spleens overwhelming bacteremia. Bacteria breach the blood-brain barrier and enter the cerebrospinal fluid meningitis (4) - neutrophils are replaced with scavenging macrophages which clear the debris from the inflammatory response. alpha hemolytic on blood agar plate (usually mucoid colonies because of capsule). A protection rate of 60% is high enough to reduce the incidence of infection in the population and thus provide some herd immunity for people in the population who do not mount an antibody response to the vaccine.Architecture of the lungs is eventually restored to normal. SUMMARY OF VIRULENCE FACTORS USED BY PNEUMOCOCCI ONCE THEY REACH THE LUNGS: 1. Cell wall components peptidoglycan and teichoic acid which elicit the powerful inflammatory response. Pneumolysin cytotoxin that kills ciliated epithelial cells and damages lung tissue; it activates complement and contributes to the inflammatory response. Hydrogen peroxide, produced by the bacteria contribute to lung damage. The Host's Specific Immune Response Specific antibody to the capsule develops in humans as a result of asymptomatic infection or clinical disease, or administration of vaccine. Distinquish from other alpha hemolytic viridans strep phenotypically. For this reason, the balance of medical opinion favors continued use of the vaccine.Capsular polysaccharide elicits primarily a B cell (i.e. Capsular antibody opsonizes the organism, facilitates phagocytosis, and promotes resistance to the disease. The presence of the capsule can be visualized under the light microscope using the a.Reservoir Exclusively a human pathogen; no animal or environmental reservoir.
The newly described organism that caused the disease was named Legionella pneumophila, shown in this picture.
While pneumococcal pneumonia can be acquired from another infected person, it is usually caused a. containing pneumococci, but few inflammatory cells.
This tremendous outpouring of serous edema fluid facilitates the growth and spread of the pneumococci to adjacent alveoli and interferes with gas exchange. alveoli are infiltrated by red blood cells (because of capillary fragility) and professional phagocytes which are unsuccessful at killing the bacteria.
Healthy people can usually fight off pneumonia infections.
However, people who are sick, including those who are recovering from the flu (influenza) or an upper respiratory illness, have weakened immune systems that make it easier for bacteria to grow in their lungs.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung that is most often caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, or other organisms.